On May 15, the "GIIS 2019 China Education Industry Innovation Summit" hosted by Yiou was officially held in Beijing. The event focused on "new situation and new breakthroughs" and focused on children's English, K12, early childhood education, and quality education. , Vocational education, international education and other fields, together with the education industry to explore the opportunities and possibilities of the future education industry.
At the summit, Wang Wenzhan, the former director of the Department of Basic Education of the Ministry of Education and the deputy governor of the State, addressed the summit.
First, guidelines for education
This topic is very big. In short, it was Xi Jinping's speech at the Fifth National Education Conference on September 10 last year. Xi Jinping focused on the following paragraph. Under the strong leadership of the party, he fully implemented the party's education policy, adhered to the guiding position of Marxism, adhered to the development path of education with Chinese characteristics, adhered to the direction of running socialist schools, based on basic national conditions, and followed the laws of education. , Adhere to reform and innovation, in order to consolidate people's hearts, improve personality, develop manpower, cultivate talents, benefit the people's work goals, cultivate socialist builders and successors of the comprehensive development of moral, intellectual, aesthetic, and labor, promote the modernization of education, build a strong education country, A good education for the people.
This passage contains a total of 146 words and 17 sentences, which are the general guiding ideology, general work ideas, general educational work goals, training goals, and general tasks. This paragraph is divided into six levels. The first level has a sentence "under the strong leadership of the party". This is the guarantee of education. In order to strengthen the party's leadership in education, education is included in the work agenda of party committees at all levels. The Central Committee decided to establish a Central Education Leading Group. This is the first time in the history of our party and it is of great significance.
The second level is the guiding ideology of education, four sentences. Fully implement the party's education policy, adhere to the guiding position of Marxism, adhere to the development path of socialist education with Chinese characteristics, and adhere to the direction of socialist schooling.
The third level is the thinking of education, three sentences. Based on basic national conditions, follow the laws of education, and adhere to reform and innovation.
The fourth level is the goal of education, five sentences. To unite people's hearts, improve personality, develop human resources, train talents, and benefit the people.
The fifth level is the training goal of the Party's educational policy in the new era, and to cultivate socialist social builders who are fully developed in morals, wisdom, physical beauty, and labor. The increase of labor was carefully considered by the central authorities. Xi Jinping pointed out in the report that it is necessary to promote the spirit of labor among students, admire labor, and enable students to understand the most glorious, the greatest, and most beautiful principles of labor. In the future, they will work hard, be honest, and create labor.
The sixth level is the total task, three sentences. Promote the modernization of education, build a country with strong education, and run a satisfactory education for the people.
Of these 146 words, seventeen sentences are very important. It is our general guideline for long-term education in the future.
The second point is the focus of current education.
The 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China has proposed to build a strong nation in education and speed up the modernization of education. This is the first time that the Party Congress has proposed it, which is of great significance and profound influence. What does it mean to speed up education? We are now a big country in education. The big country is mainly the concept of scale and quantity. A strong country is not only a concept of scale but also a concept of quality. It will take a very high step to change from a big country to a strong country. In the future, the main task of education is to improve the quality. From kindergarten to university, from school education to social education, the quality must be improved.
How to improve quality, how to improve quality? The Minister of Education Chen Baosheng published an article in the People's Daily, stating: "Insist on connotative development and accelerate the transformation of education from quantitative growth to qualitative improvement. Adhere to returning to standard, returning to common sense, returning to original intention, returning to dreams, and deepening the training of basic education talent The reform of the model sets off a revolution in the classroom and strives to cultivate students' innovative spirit and practical ability. This paragraph tells us how to improve quality and how to improve quality. The key is three sentences. The first sentence is the lifeline of education and the second sentence The words should set off a revolution in the classroom, and the third sentence should be implemented in the cultivation of the practical ability of the innovative spirit. In order to improve the quality of education, we must comprehensively implement the party's education policy, implement the fundamental tasks of ethics, promote fairness, strengthen moral education, and deepen the curriculum Teaching reform, strengthening the construction of teachers, and promoting the comprehensive development of students' moral, physical, aesthetic and labor.
The third point is to reduce the burden on students and solve the problem of reducing the burden on and off campus.
These two sentences are the current hot topics, one of the key points of the current education work, and a central concern. Alleviate the burden of middle school students' schoolwork, and solve the problem of reducing the burden on and off campus. Four proposals have been made: the first proposed by the Party ’s 19th National Congress, the second proposed at the 2018 Central Economic Work Conference, the third proposed by Premier Li Keqiang ’s government work report on March 5, last year, the fourth The second proposal was put forward by Xi Jinping on July 6, last year, chairing the third meeting of the Central Leading Group for Deepening Reform. So these two sentences are the focus of Xi Jinping and Li Keqiang, and they are one of the key tasks at present. It is also very related to our training institutions, and I want to start talking about it.
First of all, what is the reason for the burden? Is our textbook too difficult? No. The National Education Advisory Committee organized three expert groups to compare the difficulty of textbooks in ten major countries in the world, including textbooks for elementary, junior and senior high schools. The hardest is Russia, the second is the United States, the third is Germany, the fourth is Australia, we are fifth, the sixth Singapore, the seventh South Korea, the eighth Japan, the ninth France, and the tenth Great Britain. It's not a matter of teaching materials.
There are four reasons for the heavy burden. The first reason is that the teacher is difficult to teach.
The second reason for the heavy burden is that we have long periods of study. The Ministry of Education stipulates that there are 33 lessons per week in middle schools and 23 lessons per week in foreign middle schools. We have ten more classes than others. Actually, there are more than thirty-three lessons in middle schools in various places. I go to somewhere to see their schoolwork schedule. From Monday to Saturday, there are six classes a week, ten classes a day, and sixty classes a week. The Ministry of Education stipulates that there will be a total of 13,000 classes in the first grade of primary school to graduate from high school, and that of foreign students who graduate from high school to high school will be 58,000. The Ministry of Education stipulates that primary and secondary schools have 12 weeks of winter and summer vacations and 11 weeks of secondary schools, which add up to about two and a half months. Foreign elementary and middle school students have four and a half months of winter and summer vacations, two months more than us.
The third reason is the large number of homework assignments. We do homework assignments, many of them are copied from books, and have no practical value. A lot of homework is repetitive, and a lot of homework does not exist at all. It is made up for the students. Comrade Li Lanqing gave two mathematical application questions. A water tank was filled with water for five minutes, and the water was poured for eight minutes. Fill and fill at the same time? How can there be such a thing in real life, water injection here, water injection over there, silly? The second example is how many days are completed for engineering team A, engineering team B is finished, engineering team C is done for days, engineering team A is done for team B, engineering team B is done for team C, and team C is done How many days do the three work together and ask how many days it takes to finish. If our projects are all doing this, how can we guarantee the quality? Who should I look for if something goes wrong? There is also a classic mathematical case. Chickens and rabbits are in the same cage. I have lived eighty-two years old. I have never seen any farmer raise chickens and rabbits in a cage. These are compiled by the test students and do not exist in reality.
The fourth is the main reason, the problem of reducing the burden inside the school and increasing the burden outside the school. Minister Chen Baosheng said that this accounted for 50% to 100% of the student's burden, mainly this. In order to reduce the burden of schoolwork in primary and secondary schools, the Ministry of Education has made ten provisions to reduce the burden. The first point of zero teaching in primary schools is to liberate kindergartens. Kindergartens are not the focus of learning. The General Office of the Ministry of Education issued a document to carry out special rectification of kindergartens and primary schools. Kindergartens must not be allowed to do four things: the first is not allowed to learn Pinyin, the second is not allowed to read, the third is not allowed to learn math, and the fourth is not allowed to learn English. The kindergarten is mainly for fun, not for learning. It is necessary to understand accurately.
What is inaccurate? It is forbidden to incorporate education plans as in elementary schools and learn systematically and purposefully. Random studies are possible. Four apples on one plate, how many children? Four. This can be, it's random. The second is that there is no written homework for the first and second grades of primary schools, and the third is that there is no exam at the end of the first and second grades of primary schools. All of you, our managers, do your children take the first grade or second grade exams? I'm afraid I have to take the test, but I didn't. The burden on students is reduced, and parents send their children off-campus for training. Various training classes, tuition classes, and interest classes abound.
According to the survey, in 2016 there were 220,000 training institutions nationwide, 167,000 primary schools nationwide, 8 million teachers in national training institutions, 5.7 million primary school teachers nationwide, and 137 million elementary school students participating in the training, accounting for The total number of primary and secondary students is 73%. The annual training fee amounts to 800 billion yuan, with an average of 544 per student, and it is still increasing at a rate of 12% per year. The GDP growth rate is 6.5%, which is far more than GDP. The most training courses are mathematics, accounting for 38%, the second is Chinese, 29%, and the third is English, 23%, which are mainly middle school and college entrance examination subjects. In particular, Mathematical Olympiad has blossomed over and over, and a few children with genius who are interested in mathematics can participate in Mathematical Olympiad. There is no need for tens of millions of children nationwide to participate in Mathematical Olympiad.
My grandson also participated in the Mathematical Olympiad at the age of ten. I couldn't do some of his math problems. I taught math to graduate students at Tsinghua University. Some of the mathematics he learns are skills, just like juggling. Not long ago, I saw that he was doing math problems. The permutations and combinations were taught in the second year of high school. He was in fifth grade. Such training is super-standard, which increases the burden on students, increases the burden on parents, disrupts the normal education order, and has great social opinions.
On January 22 of last year, the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Civil Affairs, the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security, and the State Administration for Industry and Commerce issued a notice on effectively reducing the burden of schoolwork for middle school students and developing special governance for off-campus training institutions, which mainly address the following six: The second is the incomplete licenses, the unqualified bans, the qualified re-submission; the third is the teaching of subjects, registration with the education department for examination and approval, which subjects to teach, what to teach, how many students to enroll, and when to attend classes, with the approval of the Ministry of Education Enrollment will only be allowed in the future. Fourth, it is strictly forbidden to issue grade certificates, and the level of homework and English is forbidden. Disciplinary competitions are strictly forbidden. Last month, the Ministry of Education released the 2019 National Discipline Contest. More than 130 applications were submitted. Twenty-nine were approved last. Most of the twenty-nine were high schools. Compulsory education was rare, and twenty were approved. Nine of them are organized by the state; five is to strictly investigate the problem of no extracurricular supplements in elementary and middle school classes; and six is to strictly examine the issue of linking primary and secondary school enrollment with out-of-school training.
What is Super Gang? There are no strict policy boundaries or standards. On July 6, last year, Xi Jinping hosted the third meeting of the Central Leading Group for Deepening Reform. He specifically heard the report on governance and instructed the State Council to issue a new document.
On August 6 last year, the General Office of the State Council issued the "Opinions on the Healthy and Orderly Development of Off-campus Training Institutions". First, it is necessary to manage by classification, encourage classes to cultivate students 'hobbies, cultivate students' innovative spirit and practical ability, and restrict discipline training. Intensive examinations are strictly prohibited, and classes linked to admissions are strictly prohibited. Second, the conditions for running a training institution are stipulated. Provincial education departments formulate the running standards for training institutions. For subject training, a student has a building area of not less than three square meters. Teachers who engage in subject training must have teacher qualifications. Most of the eight million training teachers are not qualified. Don't think that you will be qualified after graduating from college. If you do not have qualifications, you must pass the national unified exam before pedagogy and psychology are qualified. The third is that working teachers are strictly prohibited from attending training institutions. Inviting foreign personnel to teach must meet the requirements of the state and have certain qualifications. You can't teach foreign languages with a big nose on the street. Fourth, subject training must be registered with the Ministry of Education for examination and approval. Subject training must not go beyond the outline, do not leave family essays, do not take exams, and do not conflict with school teaching hours. They must end before 8:30 pm every day.
As soon as these two documents were released, some bosses in our training class were tangled up, and their investment of millions and tens of millions was going to be frustrated and worried. Not long ago, I attended a meeting of more than 1,000 training course leaders in Suzhou, gave a report, and gave them a peace of mind. To accurately understand the country's guidelines and policies, for hundreds of thousands of training institutions, teachers in millions of training courses cannot be killed with a single stick. To give them directions, to give them room for development, to find the right direction-three services, work for the National Education Center, students' healthy growth, and parents. To do what some countries are currently advocating, such as cultivating hobbies, cultivating innovative practical ability, small productions, small inventions, small reporters, small moderators, literary and sports, calligraphy, recitation, reading, and these classes State encouragement.
Private education is an important part of China's socialist education. China's education consists of three parts, one is school education, the other is social education, and the other is family education. The main body of social education is private education. Without social education, it is difficult to form a learning society and it is difficult to reflect lifelong education. The state has always adopted a policy of encouragement and support for private education. The 16th National Congress of the Communist Party of China encouraged and regulated the establishment of schools by social forces, the 17th National Congress encouraged and guided the establishment of education by social forces, and the 18th National Congress encouraged and guided the establishment of schools by social forces. It is to support and regulate the development of education by social forces.
Private education can make up for the lack of national education, meet the various needs of students' parents, and can be geared to all students to cultivate their hobbies and personalities. It is very important. Without private education, education is incomplete. The "Outline" also points out that private education is a new growth point of China's education development and an important force to promote education reform. Governments at all levels should take the development of private education as an important job responsibility, support the innovation of institutions and mechanisms and education models of private schools, and improve Quality, set up characteristics, run a batch of high-quality private schools.